Thursday, May 7, 2009


Network Keyterm - 9

**IEEE 802 standards**

The standard that was set by IEEE for networking, specifically through local-area networking or LANs. Below is a listing of just some of the 802 standards currently referenced in the Computer Hope database.



Short for Internet Message Access Protocol, IMAP was developed at Stanford University in 1986 and is a protocol that allows users to retrieve e-mail but still uses SMTP for sending e-mail messages. IMAP4 is the latest version of IMAP that is similar to POP3; however, supports additional features not found in POP3.



Short for Free Space Optics and also known as infrared broadband or optical wireless, FSO is a communications standard that transmits data by using lasers over mirrors and lenses.



Short for Internet Protocol, IP is an address of a computer or other network device on a network using IP or TCP/IP . For example, the number "" is an example of such an address. These addresses are similar to addresses used on houses and help data reach its appropriate destination on a network.

There are five classes of available IP ranges: Class A, Class B, Class C, Class D and Class E, while only A, B and C are commonly used. Each class allows for a range of valid IP addresses. Below is a listing of these addresses.

Class Address Range Supports
Class A to Supports 16 million hosts on each of 127 networks.
Class B to Supports 65,000 hosts on each of 16,000 networks.
Class C to Supports 254 hosts on each of 2 million networks.
Class D to Reserved for multicast groups.
Class E to Reserved.

Ranges 127.x.x.x are reserved for loopback tests, for example, Ranges are used to broadcast to all hosts on the local network.

All IP addresses are broken down into 4 sets of octets that break down into binary to represent the actual IP address. The below chart is a basic example of the basic IP

IP: 255. 255. 255. 255.
Binary value: 11111111. 11111111. 11111111. 11111111.
Octet value: 8 8 8 8

If we were to break down the IP "", which is the IP address of Computer Hope, you would get the below value.

166. 70. 10. 23
10100110. 01000110. 00001010. 00010111
128+32+4+2=166 64+4+2=70 8+2=10 16+4+2+1=23

There are several IP addresses used or automatically assigned on a network. For example: 0 is the automatically assigned network address. 1 is the commonly used address used as the gateway. 2 is also a commonly used address used for a gateway. 255 is automatically assigned on most networks as the broadcast address.

Users and/or companies who need to register an IP address or a valid range of IP addresses must register that IP address through InterNIC.



Short for Internet Packet eXchange/Sequential Packet eXchange, IPX/SPX is a local-area network communications protocol developed by Novell that exchanges information between network clients, applications, and network peripherals. This Protocol cannot be used over the Internet.




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